The Great Fatted Bull
Tablet #36
Sumerian Images
Sumerian History
The Royal Tombs of Ur
The Standard of Ur:  War
The Standard of Ur:  King
The "Standard" of Ur?
Vulture Stele Translation
Sumerian War Chariots
War Chariot Deconstructed
Gudea Translation
The Face of Gudea
The Face of Ur-Ningirsu
The Face of Lugal-agrig-zi
Ur-Namma Translation
The Face of Ur-Namma
Face of Ur-Namma, part II
I am Ur-Namma
The Face of Shulgi
Who Were the Sumerians?
Other Sumerian Kings
The Shepherd Kings
The Kings of Uruk
War: Umma and Lagash
Enmetena Vase
Enmetena Tablet
Enmetena, not Urukagina
Urukagina Liberty Cones
The Man of Umma
Lugalzagesi Translation
The Princess Wife
The Great Fatted Jackass
Sargon's Victory Stele
Helmet: the King of Kish
The Standard of Mari?
The Invention of Writing
Adventures in Cuneiform
The Sumerian Scribe
A Masterpiece
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Lugalzagesi vase. It redefines the borders of Umma, measured in distances relative to a statue of Shara, the patron god of the city. Many vases similar to this one were found with inscriptions by Lugalzagesi, the king of Uruk, Umma, and all of Sumer.

This is a translation of the inscriptions on a bowl, CDLI (222898). The inscriptions are dedicated to the god Enlil in thanksgiving for Lugalzagesi's conquests, which ranged from the Lower Sea (the Persian Gulf) to the Upper Sea (the Mediterrean).

From the Lower Sea to the Upper Sea

For Enlil, king of all the lands –

Lugalzagesi, king of Uruk,
king of the nation,
incantation-priest of An,
lumah-priest of Nisaba,
son of U-U, the ruler of Umma
and lumah-priest of Nisaba,
looked upon truly
by An as the king of all the lands.
The chief ruler of Enlil,
given wisdom by Enki,
nominated by Utu,
chief minister of Suen,
military governor of Utu,
one who provides for Inanna,
son born of Nisaba,
fed wholesome milk by Ninhursaga,
a man of the god Mes-sanga-Unuga,
servant raised by the
goddess Ningirim, queen of Uruk,
chief steward of the gods –

When Enlil, king of all the lands,
to Lugalzagesi the kingship of the nation had given,
and the eyes of the nation
he had let be directed toward him,
and all the lands at his feet he had placed,
and from east to west
he had made them subject to him,
then, from the sea, the lower one,
along the Tigris and the Euphrates
to the sea, the upper one,
their roads he put in proper order for him.

From east to west
Enlil no rival did he let him have.
All the lands in river meadows
rested (contentedly) under him,
and the nation was happily making merry under him.
All those on thrones in Sumer
and the rulers of foreign lands
unto the land of Uruk
the divine power of princeship
they determine(?) for him.

In those days,
Uruk in rejoicing spent its days under him.
Ur, like a bull, its head skyward did lift up under him.
Larsa, the beloved city of Utu,
happily made merry under him.
Umma, the beloved city of ล ara,
its great horns it lifted up under him.
The land of Zabala, like a ewe stripped of a lamb,
did cry out under him.
Ki'ana, its neck skyward it lifted up under him.

Lugalzagesi, king of Uruk and king of the nation,
solicitously(?) to Enlil his master in Nippur
very large food offerings he serves to him,
and sweet water he pours out for him.
If Enlil, king of all the lands,
to An, his beloved father,
a prayer on my behalf should say,
to my life (additional) life may he add!

May the land in river meadows
rest (contentedly) under me,
may the people
like sweet-smelling grasses
spread out widely under me,
may the teats of heaven
function properly under me,
and the nation a pleasant place
may it behold under me.
The favorable destiny
which they (An and Enlil) have determined
may they never alter for me!
A proud shepherd may I be forever!

For his life, to Enlil,
his beloved master,
he dedicated it (this vessel).