This page provides citations to support my
transliteration of tablet BE 31,28. The page is
intended for anyone interested in cuneiform studies who wishes to verify
that my translation of tablet BE 31,28 is correct. There's nothing of interest on the page for the general reader, so you can skip it without hurting my feelings.
This is an abbreviated sign list. I didn't include an example of every sign on the tablet, as I did for the Tablet #36 Sign List. There are a couple of reasons for this. First, Tablet #36 was my first translation, so I needed to prove my abilities in terms of "sign recognition". BE 31,28 and SEM 114 are my second and third translations respectively, so I have already demonstrated my abilities and there's no need to belabor the point. Second, on this tablet there are not many "compressed signs", like on Tablet #36 (the signs are simplified to make them easier to write, and shortened to save space on the line). Compressed signs are difficult to recognize for someone who is only familiar with the classic cuneiform script.
On this tablet, most of the signs resemble their ePSD fonts and they are easy to read. For this sign list, I include only the compressed signs and a few others that are written in a very simplified, abstract way. The scribe often doesn't include all the details of the signs, which makes them somewhat difficult to read.
For each sign, I provide a picture of the ePSD font, followed by an example from the tablet. I also
provide an example (or two) from other tablets on the CDLI.
Click on the given line number (e.g., o2,4 for obverse (front of the tablet) column 2, line #4, or r5 for reverse
(back) line #5) to see a line-drawing of the tablet with the sign
highlighted in red. To check on the transliteration of a sign, click on
the CDLI's “P” number, which links to the tablet’s page on the CDLI, and
it will show the sign name in the given line number. It may be
necessary to click on “View line art” to see the line drawing of the
tablet. Note: on the CDLI, š is written as sz, ĝ is written as just g,
and ḫ is just h.
gemeX (geme2) = female servant or slave. GemeX is a trick sign. It is written with just two reverse cunei, instead of the usual three, so that it looks like gu, "cord". This was done to help disguise the meaning of the text, as explained in Sumerian Trick Signs. GemeX also appears in line o2 of SEM 114, the story of The Great Fatted Jackass, and on Tablet #36, the story of The Great Fatted Bull, as shown by the two signs on the right.
nu-nus (nu-nuz) = woman. It would be difficult to write this sign within the narrow lines of a tablet, so the scribes found a simpler way to write it. I was unable to find a line drawing of nu-nus on the CDLI. On the right is nuz (nus) by itself, as seen on CDLI P227751, line o4,12. Nu-nus is the trick sign on BE 31,28. For an explanation, see Nu-nus.
pad3/pa3 (igi.ru) = reveal. The igi portion of the sign is always written the same, but there are many compressed versions of ru. P260882r1,3
zu = know, inform. P254211o22 The scribe uses a very simplified version of zu (and many other signs). Zu is also written this way in line r4 of SEM 114, the story of the Great Fatted Jackass, as seen on the right.